Adipose Derived Stem Cells
Adipose Derived Stem Cells are mesenchymal stem cells which can be found in the fat tissue; these cells represent a multipotent cellular population which can differentiate into cells of various tissues, including but not limited to bone, cartilage, heart and muscle.
Moreover, those cells can show immunomodulating properties and an elevated capacity to stimulate the formation of new blood vessels. Adipose derived stem cells are also contained in the bone marrow, in the amniotic liquid and epithelial tissue. The fat is our richest source of stem cells and it is the easiest tissue to be harvested through a normal liposuction. Adipose-derived stem cells can be used in many field in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. They are very useful in the body shaping, helping the survival of the grafted fat, play an important role in the rejuvenation process of the skin, promote the healing of scars and the correction of it. They can be used also as a treatment for stretch marks, old scar depressions and keloids.
Alopecia Areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair; it is clinically heterogeneous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure at this moment. Hair transplantation – which takes plugs of natural hair from hair-rich occipital areas and transplants them to the hair-poor areas- may no longer be a viable option for treatment, as there might not be sufficient donor hair follicles (available from the scalp or other areas) that can be transplanted without causing collateral damage elsewhere.
Cell therapy can restore bald scalp areas has become an emerging focus in addressing this medical condition.
Adipose derived cells (ADC) are one of the latest break-troughs in hair regeneration, since these cells and their conditioned media (ADC-CM) have been reported to promote hair growth in vitro and in some clinical reports of treatments for androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL).
Moreover, ADC-CM increases the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells (DPC) and human epithelial keratinocytes, two cell types present in hair follicles, inducing anagen phase and stimulating hair regeneration.
The treatment is based on the administration of ADC-CM alone or in association to autologous, in vitro expanded ADC.
ADCs are isolated starting from a fat tissue sample which can be collected during a surgical liposuction or in one outpatient session.
The cells are expanded under sterile conditions and culture media is collected for future use.
About two weeks after the small FAT collection about ten millions of cells are ready for an immediate treatment and the remaining cells are cryopreserved for future treatments .
ADC-CM contains various regenerative factors secreted by ADC that can limit hair loss by recruiting endogenous cells to hair follicles sites and triggering regeneration. Moreover, ADC-CM increases the poor engraftment of the ADC transplanted alone and the clinical outcomes in hair regeneration.
The sample can be taken using a simple micro-liposuction procedure with no need for surgery, the collection does not require dedicated equipment and/or kits, simply a standard syringe.
The possibility of freezing part of the material offers the advantage of repeating the treatment several times over the years without the need to undergo again to fat tissue collection.