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Skin Problems & Treatments Guide

Fillers in Dubai | 13 July 2019

I am passionate about skin and fuss-free beauty. I have put together this brief guide of some of the most popular skin and aesthetic concerns which I see regularly in clinic. Over time I will continue to expand and update my dataset in order to provide you with concise and accurate information. Don’t forget to visit my website for more guides, news and blogs.

FOREHEAD WRINKLES & FROWN LINES

Forehead wrinkles are horizontal lines that appear on the forehead due to contraction of the muscles that raise the eyebrows. Frown lines are verticle wrinkles that appear between the eyes when you squint or frown. Both these wrinkles initially appear when you are moving the muscles responsible but over time can become ingrained and apparent even when your face is still. Whilst natural, most people seek treatment as they feel these lines make them look grumpy, anxious or even angry.

What Causes Forehead Wrinkles & Frown Lines?

Both forehead wrinkles and frown lines are predominantly caused by ageing. As we get older we lose both collagen and elastin. These two proteins form the scaffolding of the skin. Hence, they are responsible for keeping your skin firm, elastic and plump. As thin becomes thinner and less stretchy, wrinkles develop. Initially, this is when the muscles underlying them contracts such as when you raise your eyebrows or frown. Eventually, forehead wrinkles and frown lines become deeper and visible even when you aren’t moving your face. Sun damage, or photoaging, are also a cause.

Treatment Options For Forehead Wrinkles & Frown Lines

Thankfully there are a number of treatment options for forehead wrinkles and frown lines. The first step is to ensure that you have a good skincare routine which helps hydrate, nourish and protect your skin.

Botox® For Forehead Wrinkles & Frown Lines

Botox® injections are highly effective for wrinkles and lines that are only apparent when you make an expression. The treatment is quick and pain-free with results lasting for 3-4 months.

Dermal Fillers For Forehead Wrinkles & Frown Lines

If your wrinkles and lines are deeper and appear at rest then Botox® is likely to not completely smooth them out. Dermal filler anti-wrinkle injections, however, can very effectively treat these areas and results last between 6-12 months.

Professional Skin Treatments For Frown Lines & Forehead Wrinkles

Botox® and dermal fillers offer immediate smoothing out of lines and wrinkles by reducing muscle contraction (Botox®) or by filling out and lifting the skin (dermal fillers). Professional skin treatments are really useful if you’re looking to address the underlying cause of wrinkles in the long term. A combination of a course of chemical peels and microneedling will resurface the skin and induce collagen and elastin production. This will smooth out lines and wrinkles, firm and plump up the skin as well as give a youthful glowing complexion. In the long term, these bespoke skin rejuvenating treatments could reduce the need for treatments like Botox and dermal fillers.

CROW’S FEET & SMILE LINES

Crow’s feet, also known as smile lines, are wrinkles that appear on the outer corners of the eye. They are caused by contraction of the muscles responsible for squinting, smiling, laughing or frowning. Initially, these wrinkles are only visible when you smile or laugh but over time, like all wrinkles, they become deeper. Ingrained Crow’s feet and smile lines are visible whether or not you contract the underlying muscles (ie even when you’re resting the muscles of expression). Crow’s feet can also extend upwards towards the temple and downwards to affect the cheeks when they are more advanced and as volume is lost in these areas of the face with age.

What Causes Crow’s Feet & Smile Lines?

The main reason Crow’s feet or smile lines develop is due to loss of collagen and elastin in the skin. These proteins are the skin’s natural plumpers and provide elasticity. Hence losing them causes skin to become thinner and for wrinkles to become apparrent. Loss of colllagen and elastin occurs naturally as we age. Of course, the other cause of the appearance of wrinkles is sun damage (or photageing).

Treatments For Crow’s Feet & Smile Lines

First of all its important to start with basics like understanding your skin type and following a basic skincare routine. Simple lifestyle modifications such as sun protection, keeping hydrated and stopping smoking will also help slow down the development of Crow’s feet or smile lines.

Chemical Peels & Collagen Induction Therapy

There are a number of effective treatments for existing Crow’s feet and smile lines. The simplest option for very early signs of fine lines and wrinkles would be a course of chemical peels and/or microneedling. These resurface the skin and induce collagen and elastin production. 

Botox Injections

If you have Crow’s feet that are only evident on making expression, these can be treated very easily with Botox anti-wrinkle injections. For Crow’s feet or smile lines that are deeper (ie visible without making any expressions), then using hyaluronic acid dermal fillers would provide a better option.

Dermal Fillers

For more advanced Crow’s feet or under eye wrinkles and tear trough deformities, a combination of different dermal fillers can offer a natural looking solution. If you have smile lines that extend deep onto the cheeks, then you might which to consider both cheek fillers and wrinkle smoothing with dermal filler in order to restore volume and lift the wrinkles. For co-existing under eye hollows and wrinkles, the addition of tear trough fillers would help to completely rejuvenate the under eye area.

JAWLINE CONTOURING & SQUARE JAW REDUCTION

The shape of the jaw is dependent on the bone, muscles, fat and skin the comprise it. There are many factors that affect the appearance of the jaw including genetics and lifestyle. Some people seek to enhance the shape of the jaw (usually if there is sagging of the lower face or if they are seeking a more defined appearance) by having jawline contouring. This can widen or narrow and shorten or lengthen the appearance of the jawline as required. Jawline contouring can also help lift and firm up the appearance of a sagging lower face. For those with a wide jaw, square jaw reduction can help produce a narrower V-shaped jawline. Ultimately, the results are dependent on your face shape, targets and the abilities of your aesthetic doctor.

What Causes The Appearance Of A Sagging Or Square Jaw?

The shape of the lower face is made up of several structures including your jaw bones, muscles and soft tissues like fat or skin. Whilst genetics play a huge part in terms of the shape and size of these facial structures, there are a number of other factors that come in to play. The main cause for lack of definition or sagging of the jawline is ageing and reduced face volume. One of the main reasons for developing a square jaw in both men and women can be overactivity of the chewing muscles which is usually caused by tooth grinding. Other factors that can give the appearance of loss of definition, jawline sagging or a square jaw is ageing and loss of volume in the cheeks or lack of chin prominence or neck sagging.

Non-Surgical Jawline Contouring & Square Jaw Reduction

There are a number of non-surgical options for enhancing the jawline and reducing a square jaw. Botox injections are an effective treatment for square jaw reduction which also has the benefit of stopping teeth grinding. These Botox injections can also be used to lift a sagging neck and hence sculpt the lower face and jawline.

Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers can be used alone or in combination with Botox for jawline contouring. Dermal fillers can be used to directly reshape the jawline and lift up the lower face. A combination of jawline, cheek and chin dermal fillers to contour the jawline and the whole face. 

If the aim is to reduce the appearance of a square jaw or face, then a combination of Botox and dermal fillers can be used to provide a more contoured and V-line jaw appearance.

JOWLS & MARIONETTE LINES

Jowls are loose skin and flesh that hang beneath the lower jawline. Marionette lines or “puppet lines” are lines that run from the corners of the mouth to the chin. Both are a sign of ageing and volume loss in the face. One of the most commonly cited reasons for wanting to get rid of them is because they give the appearance of being grumpy or sad.

What Causes Jowls & Marionette Lines?

The main cause of both jowls and marionette lines is ageing. As we get older our skin becomes thinner and less pliable. This is due to loss of collagen and elastin. At the same time, we also lose volume in the face (particularly in the midface area) which provides scaffolding and shape. Both these processes result in sagging of the skin and tissues which gives rise to jowls and marionette lines in the lower face. Other factors which exacerbate skin ageing are smoking, sun-damage and genetics.

Treatment Options For Jowls & Marionette Lines

There are a number of treatment options for jowls and marionette lines. First of all, it is very important to ensure that you follow a regular skincare routine tailored to your skin type. Two highly effective and non-surgical options that I offer are Botox® and hyaluronic acid dermal fillers. Which of these (if any) is suitable for you will depend on your expectations and the severity of the lines.

Botox® For Jowls & Marionette Lines

For moderate jowls, I offer jawline tightening with Botox®. This treatment can soften the appearance of early jowling and provide a more defined jawline and sculpted neck. Whilst its possible to soften the appearance of marionette lines with Botox®, I do not think that this is the most effective treatment on its own. However, in some circumstances, I combine Botox with dermal fillers for treating marionette lines.

Dermal Fillers For Jowls & Marionette Lines

Since both Jowls and Marionette lines are caused by volume loss and sagging skin in the face, dermal fillers provide the opportunity to treat the underlying problem. For moderately severe lines, I can directly inject hyaluronic acid dermal filler into and around these creases to soften and minimize their appearance. For more severe jowling and marionette lines, I recommend hyaluronic acid dermal fillers to the cheeks to lift the face in addition to adding filler to the areas themselves.

If you have both jowls and marionette lines as well as other signs of ageing such as upper face wrinkles, then you can opt for a combination of Botox® and dermal fillers as part of my liquid facelift package.

LOSS OF FACE VOLUME

The whole mark of a younger face is one with thick, plump and firm skin. Additionally, younger faces have fuller volumes due to the size and location of the facial fat pads. As we age, our faces lose their fullness because of thinning of the skin, loss of elasticity and shrinking in size of the facial fat pads. This loss of face volume results in the appearance of lines, wrinkles and sagging of the face.

What Causes Loss Of Face Volume?

The main cause of facial volume loss is ageing. Over time, our body produces less collagen, elastin and the fat pads in the face reduce in size. This results in thinner and less pliable skin as well as sagging of the face. Similarly, changes in hormonal profile, in particular, oestrogen, can help accelerate this process. Lifestyle factors such as smoking and sun damage also contribute to skin ageing as well as loss of facial volume.

How Does Losing Volume Affect The Appearance Of Your Face?

Loss of skin volume leads to thinner and less elastic skin. This gives rise to wrinkles and uneven texture. At the same time, reduction in the volume of the fat pads, as well as their descent with gravity, occurs. This gives rise to a flatter profile and sagging of the skin in the mid and lower face. Hence this can lead to a gaunt appearance. It is due to this loss of facial fat volume that gives rise to tear trough deformities, hollowing of the temples, malar flattening, nose to mouth lines, jowls and marionette lines.

How To Add And Restore Volume To Your Face Naturally

In my opinion, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers are highly effective for restoring facial volume. This is because they can replace lost volume, help firm up and lift skin, smooth down wrinkles and deliver natural looking results. How much, which type of filler and where to pace them depends on the degree of facial volume loss and your overall face shape. 

The main ways Dermal fillers can help with face volume loss are:

Cheek fillers for contouring and midface lifting

Tear trough fillers for undereye circles and shadows

Restoration of lip shape, definition and volume with lip fillers

Combat sagging, marionette lines and jowls with jawline and lower face fillers

Additionally, face fillers can be combined with Botox as part of my signature liquid facelift to refresh and smooth the face. Collagen induction therapy can also boost the effects of dermal fillers by inducing elastin and collagen formation for thicker and plumper skin.

NECK SAGGING & WRINKLES

As we age, the skin on the neck loses collagen and elastin. This leads to thin and less pliable skin on the neck which gives rise to wrinkles. Loss of fat and skin thickness also leads to the appearance of neck sagging. This is further exacerbated by the shortening and loosening of the platysma muscle around the neck hence causing sagging and banding. The main neck complaint that I see is neck sagging with visible bands as well as wrinkling of the skin.

Treatment Options For Neck Sagging & Wrinkles

Thankfully there are a number of treatment options for forehead wrinkles and frown lines. The first step is to ensure that you have a good skincare routine which helps hydrate, nourish and protect your skin.

Botox® Non-Surgical Neck Lift For Neck Sagging & Bands

Botox® anti-wrinkle injections are highly effective for smoothing out wrinkles and lines on the skin. Furthermore, Botox® can be injected to relax the platysma muscle as well as other muscles that pull on the neck or jawline. This procedure is known as the Botox® non-surgical neck lift. The effect of this is that it lifts and sculpts the neck as well as jawline. The treatment takes 3-4 weeks to work and last for 3-4 months.

Dermal Fillers For Neck Wrinkles

If the main concern is deep lines or wrinkles on the face and a sagging jawline, then dermal fillers provide an ideal non-invasive procedure. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers smooth put wrinkles and can also be used to sculpt the jawline and lower face and upper neck.

UNDER EYE CIRCLES, BAGS & TEAR TROUGHS

These are all very common areas of concern for both men and women. Under eye circles are dark patches that are visible under the eye. Depending on cause and skin tone, these can look like shadows or discolouration that’s red, blue or green in hue. Under eye bags on the other hand, are swollen pockets or patches under the eye. Both under eye circles and bags can either occur separately or alone. They may also be caused by or exasperated by the presence of a tear trough (this is a loss of fat tissue leading to hollowness under the eye). The most common complaints people tend to have with under eye circles, bags or tear trough deformities is that they give the appearance of tiredness.

What Causes Under Eye Circles, Bags & Tear Troughs?

There are a number of genetic and environmental causes that give rise to under eye circles, bags and tear trough deformities. Some people are more predisposed to developing these and whether they affect other members of your family is a good indicator of your risk. Your skin tone may also play a role. Paler skin tones tend to show up blood vessels more readily and thus give the impression of bluish discolouration under the eyes. Darker skin tones may exhibit increased pigmentation in the under eye area which gives the appearance of shadowing. Aside from genetics, other common causes include:

Ageing: as we get older, the skin under the eyes loses its thickness and elasticity. This thinner and more fragile skin is more likely to show underlying muscles and blood vessels which also gives the appearance of dark circles under the eyes. Sun damage can also cause dark pigmentation under the eyes as well as accelerate skin ageing. Fat loss and reduced skin laxity can also cause under eye bags to appear more prominent. Loss of fat under the skin and skin ageing can also give rise to tear trough deformities.

Diet: deficiencies in Vitamins C and K as well as iron are thought to present with discolouration under the eyes. Diets high in salt can also increase fluid retention which can increase the prominence of under eye bags.

Sleeping: or rather lack of, can result in worsening of under eye circles and bags.

Dehydration: reduced water intake, excess caffeine and alcohol can all cause volume depletion in the skin and lack of laxity.

Sun damage and smoking:  this can cause increased pigmentation and skin ageing both of which give rise to dark under eye circles and bags.

Inflammation and allergies: this can cause puffiness, bags and under eye circles over time.

Treatment Options For Under Eye Circles, Bags & Tear Troughs?

Luckily, there are a wide range of treatment options if you suffer from under eye circles or bags. The first thing is to ensure that you have a good skincare routine which includes using an under eye cream that contains ingredients like Vitamin C, Vitamin K and ferulic acid which help with under eye circles. Another important skincare tip is to ensure that the under eye skin is kept moisturised so having hyaluronic acid in your under eye cream would help immensely.

If the problem is purely due to thin skin or pigmentation issues, then advanced skin treatments like chemical peels and collagen induction therapy can help brighten and firm up the under eye skin. For tear trough deformities and under eye bags, hyaluronic acid tear trough fillers can treat the hollowness under the eyes and rejuvenate the eye area. For more defined tear trough deformities, cheek fillers can help provide support for the tear trough fillers.